Ambiente, ecologia, tecnologia e sviluppo sostenibile

Africa. Il nuovo continente ... giallo!

Scritto da Luca De Nardo - 100ambiente • Martedì, 19 maggio 2009 • Categoria: Mercati e Tendenze



In questo decennio alle imprese occidentali è accaduto di perdere importanti commesse in Africa, soprattutto nel settore estrattivo, a favore di imprese cinesi che se le aggiudicavano con offerte fuori mercato.
Quando il governo di Pechino decide che alcuni settori diventano strategici, lo stato sostiene le imprese interessate con ingenti capitali pubblici.
E le materie prime, di cui l’Africa è ricca, sono il più strategico dei settori per la Cina, spiega Stefano Gardelli in "L’Africa cinese. Gli interessi asiatici nel Continente Nero" (Università Bocconi editore, 2009, 146 pagine, 15 euro).
Nel 1993 la Cina si è trasformata da paese esportatore a importatore di petrolio.
Oggi la Cina consuma il 15% dell’energia mondiale e, a differenza di quanto accade nel resto del pianeta, il fabbisogno cresce più velocemente dell’economia.

Oltre alla fame di materie prime, le motivazioni che hanno spinto Pechino a intensificare i rapporti con l’Africa sono l’apertura di nuovi mercati per i propri prodotti e la ricerca del supporto dei governi africani nelle istituzioni internazionali.

È grazie all’appoggio africano che la Cina ha bloccato l’adesione di Taiwan all’Organizzazione mondiale della sanità, ha evitato di essere condannata presso la Commissione Onu per i diritti umani e si è aggiudicata le Olimpiadi del 2008 e l’Expo del 2010.
Molti dei veicoli che circolano nel continente sono di produzione cinese e persino l’Africa ha risentito dello “tsunami tessile” del 2005, quando l’invasione di prodotti economici cinesi, nella sola Nigeria, ha costretto l’80% delle fabbriche a chiudere, facendo perdere il lavoro a 250.000 persone.


La maggiore fonte di prestiti all’Africa è la Exim (Export-Import) Bank cinese, che ha soppiantato persino la Banca Mondiale.
I prestiti servono a sostenere le offerte di imprese cinesi per appalti importanti o a liberare un paese dalla dipendenza economica dall’Occidente.
Da metà degli anni Novanta al 2004 gli aiuti cinesi all’Africa sono aumentati da 100 milioni a 2,7 miliardi di dollari.

A differenza dei prestiti occidentali, quelli cinesi vengono erogati senza condizioni politiche, in virtù del principio di non interferenza, ma a patto che i progetti che vanno a finanziare siano appaltati, di solito nella misura del 70%, a imprese cinesi, che spesso utilizzano manodopera importata dalla madrepatria.
“Quello che la Cina concede con una mano”, scrive Gardelli, “riprende con interessi con l’altra”.

Si evidenzia una forte continuità nel rapporto Cina-Africa dagli anni della Guerra fredda a oggi.
La retorica della cooperazione sud-sud sopravvive, così come l’intenzione di presentarsi come modello economico e sociale alternativo a quello occidentale.
In contrapposizione allo Washington consensus si è così sviluppato un Beijing consensus, ovvero un modello basato sulla
“necessità di una politica che presti un’attenzione particolare alle priorità e ai bisogni primari della popolazione, delle riforme politico-economiche pensate secondo il modello di un’economia di sviluppo, la necessità di un processo di riforme fatto per gradi con priorità riservata alle riforme economiche rispetto a quelle politiche”.
In pochi anni la Cina è riuscita a instaurare con l’Africa rapporti paragonabili a quelli che l’Occidente ha sviluppato in oltre un secolo, ma l’allarme che si leva da più parti è spesso interessato.
È vero che la Cina non fa nulla per migliorare le condizioni di vita delle popolazioni e che, anzi, legittima regimi come quello sudanese e, come ha dimostrato nello Zambia, è pronta ad abbandonare il principio di non interferenza se qualcuno minaccia i suoi interessi, ma in passato l’Occidente non si è comportato diversamente.
“La distinzione da compiere”, chiosa Gardelli, “non è tanto tra capitali cinesi e occidentali, ma piuttosto tra i capitali meramente rapaci e quelli più sofisticati”.
In questa guerra economica, l'ambiente, sarà preservato?
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